Zeke Hausfather has contributed a guest post at RealClimate about his latest publication studying the impact of the “urban heat island” (UHI) effect on temperature trends, and how effective present correction methods are. The two-sentence summary:
The simple take-away is that while UHI and other urban-correlated biases are real (and can have a big effect), current methods of detecting and correcting localized breakpoints are generally effective in removing that bias. Blog claims that UHI explains any substantial fraction of the recent warming in the US are just not supported by the data.
Do take a look at the RC post, it has much more detail, and at the paper.